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An examination of the difficulties faced by the Russian military in planning and carrying out urban operations in Chechnya. Russian and rebel military forces fought to control the Chechen city of Grozny in the winters of and , as well as clashing in smaller towns and villages. The study concludes that while the Russian military was able to significantly improve its ability to carryout a number of key tasks in the five-year interval between the wars, other important missions — particularly in the urban realm — were ignored, largely in the belief that the urban mission could be avoided.
The Russia’s Chechen War
This conscious decision not to prepare for a most stressful battlefield met with devastating results, a lesson the United States would be well served to study. Preface PDF.
- Russia Ends Operations in Chechnya.
- Yeltsin orders Russian forces into Chechnya;
- The Obama Presidency and the Politics of Change!
Figures PDF. In , Stalin disbanded the Chechen-Ingush republic altogether and forcibly deported the entire Chechen population to Siberia and Kazakhstan. In the early s, following the Soviet collapse, separatists in the newly formed Russian Federation Republic of Chechnya started an independence movement called the Chechen All-National Congress.
From to , Russia fought Chechen guerillas in a conflict that became known as the First Chechen War. In May , Yeltsin signed a ceasefire with the separatists, and they agreed on a peace treaty the following year. Terrorism and Counterterrorism. But violence flared again three years later.
In August , Chechen militants invaded the neighboring Russian republic of Dagestan to support a local separatist movement.
The following month, five bombs exploded in Russia over a ten-day period, killing almost three hundred civilians. Moscow blamed Chechen rebels for the explosions, which comprised the largest coordinated terrorist attack in Russian history.
Russia's Chechen Wars Lessons from Urban Combat | RAND
In February , Russia recaptured the Chechen capital of Grozny, destroying a good part of the city center in the process, reasserting direct control over Chechnya. Tens of thousands of Chechens and Russians were killed or wounded in the two wars, and hundreds of thousands of civilians were displaced. Since , however, violence has markedly increased in the North Caucasus, according to a report by the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Incidents of violence rose from in to 1, in , and suicide bombings quadrupled in , the majority of which occurred in Chechnya. Information about groups linked to the conflict in Chechnya is hard to confirm, but experts say the struggle is between local separatists--a loosely organized group with semi-independent commanders--and the Russian army.
According to the U.
Basayev fought for Chechen independence for more than a decade, and was the mastermind behind the worst terrorist attacks on Russian soil. On July 10, , Basayev was killed in an explosion in neighboring Ingushetia. His death cast doubt on the future of the Chechen separatist movement, and allegedly led to the surrender of five hundred militants. Four months later, Russian security forces killed Abu Hafs al-Urdani, the Jordanian-born commander of foreign fighters in Chechnya.
Moscow blames radical Islamists for the trouble. Despite the undeniable role of fundamentalists in the Caucasus, however, Moscow had a greater hand in the federation's decline than it cares to admit.
Chechnya, Russia and 20 years of conflict
Russia's latest war with Chechnya was sparked in August when radical Islamists, many of whom had infiltrated from Chechnya, staged uprisings in the neighboring southern Russian republic of Dagestan. Russian troops were sent and, despite Moscow's reassurances that the conflict was under control, the operations had evolved by September into the second full-scale war between Russia and Chechnya in five years.
The innumerable deaths, the relentless bombardment of cities, and the torrent of refugees are eerily familiar, recalling the horrors of the Russo-Chechen war. The Russian army -- even while weakened and demoralized -- has been more successful this time; Russian officials are proclaiming swift progress. But no real solution -- military or political -- is in sight. Instead, Russia is drifting back to the hoary Soviet practice of the big lie.
- Russia Ends Operations in Chechnya - The New York Times.
- Accessibility links?
- Last Days?
- Chechnya profile - Timeline - BBC News.
It blames the bombing of marketplaces and civilian dwellings on Chechen terrorists and "bandits" while praising its own military for pinpoint strikes that supposedly destroy terrorist strongholds without hurting civilians.