For example, there were only 2, transistors on a chip of the 4-bit microprocessor Intel released in with the area of 3x4 mm or just 12 square millimeters, which is only about transistors per square millimeter. For comparison, in the core microprocessor Power8 designed by IBM and released in or 42 years later, there are 4. That is, on each square millimeter, 6. Note that each transistor consumes a certain, though very small, amount of current.
Because they are located in a very small volume, it is clear the good cooling is required for such chips. An alternating current, especially at high frequencies, has a tendency to become distributed unevenly in a conductor such that the conductive zone is only in its surface layer, thereby increasing the current density in the wires, which, in turn, leads to energy loss when the wire is heated or even melted.
This phenomenon of reducing the amplitude of electromagnetic waves as they penetrate deeper into the conductor is called the skin or surface effect. To reduce the loss at high frequencies, the conductors are plated with silver or gold — materials with very low resistivity. To reduce losses, often several three to a thousand or more thin insulated wires are used instead of one thick conductor.
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This type of cable is called litz wire from German Litzendraht or braided wire. In particular, litz wire is used for making inductors in induction cookers. At high current densities the actual movement of materials in the connections can happen. This is called electromigration. This movement is caused by the drift of ions to or from material as a result of the exchange of momentum during collisions between the conduction carriers and the crystal lattice of the conductor. Electromigration effect plays a significant role in cases where the currents have a higher density, for example, in microelectronics as discussed above.
The greater the density reached in large-scale or very large-scale integrated circuit, the more noticeable the effect. As a result, electromigration can lead to the complete destruction of the conductor or a new conductor can appear in place where it should not be, thus short-circuiting this part of the circuit. Both situations can of course lead to a malfunction of the integrated circuit.
Thus, increased circuit density leads to decreasing reliability of integrated circuits. In modern electronic devices, however, integrated circuits rarely fail because of electromigration effects.
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This is due to the fact that proper design practices take into consideration the effects of electromigration. The short-circuit current density of a photovoltaic cell is an essential parameter to characterize the power conversion efficiency of the cell. This approach is useful because it allows comparing cells made by various manufacturers. While the voltage from the photovoltaic module is determined by the number of individual solar cells, the current from the module depends mostly on the surface area of the cell exposed to solar light and efficiency of the solar cells.
Note that the definition of the surface current density in solar cells is not the same as the definition of the surface current density above. The current density is one of the main characteristics that define the quality of the final product in chrome plating and other electroplating techniques. During chrome plating, a thin layer of chromium is placed onto a metal or plastic object.
The chromed layer can be decorative, aesthetically pleasant, durable and resistant to corrosion. Chrome plating is also used for increasing surface hardness.
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Hard chrome, also known as industrial or engineered chrome is used to reduce friction and improve durability by means of increasing wear resistance, abrasion tolerance and oxidation resistance. Hard chrome electroplating is also sometimes used to restore original dimensions of worn parts. For use in the automotive industry, steel undergoes several plating processes to endure changes in temperature and weather that a car is subject outdoors and during its use.
Usually a triple plating process is used, which involves first plating with copper, then nickel and chromium being the last layer applied. The temperature and current density in the chromium bath affect the brightness and uniform deposition of chrome. A common example of measuring the current density is electroplating where the current density is measured in liquid conducting media electrolyte of the plating bath.
This involves calculating or measuring the surface area of a part being covered with metal and measuring the current flowing through the plating bath. Several current density meters are commercially available. They allow electroplaters to know exactly the rate of deposit of material on the work piece. A current density meter for electrolyte usually consists of a small toroidal probe with a coil and a digital display unit, which measures the current flowing through the coil induced by the current in electrolyte flowing inside it. Another example of measuring the surface current density is in the solar cell industry.
Short-circuit current densities are often not homogenous across the photo cell.
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The difference in surface current densities can be due to different charge carrier lifetimes in various regions of the cell, various distances to the metal contacts and other factors. To measure the surface current densities across the cell, they can be irradiated by a focused very narrow electron or light beam. A light spot with a very small diameter scans the surface of the cell and the extracted photocurrent is accurately measured. Thus, a map of local short-circuit surface current density is created and can be used for optimization of a photovoltaic device.
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