On her retirement she lived in the suburb of Newtown until her death on 30 May The peace of her later years was disturbed a little by the publication in of Rev. Richard Cobbold's book on Margaret Catchpole , which led to understandable rumours that she was the heroine of Cobbold's colourful story.
Thomas and Mary Reibey's three sons, who founded the Tasmanian branch of the family, all followed their parents' lead in mercantile and shipping ventures. The eldest son, Thomas b. He died at his estate, Entally, Hadspen, near Launceston, on 3 October The second son, James Haydock b. In the s he was trading in partnership with his elder brother and engaged in sealing and other coastal shipping activities. He originally settled near Hobart Town but later bought a property adjoining Entally and died in Of the four Reibey daughters, the youngest, Elizabeth Ann b.
The surname was variously spelt as Raby, Rabey, and Reiby, but after the death of Thomas Reibey in Reibey was usually adopted by the family. View the front pages for Volume 2. Australian Dictionary of Biography person text Tip: searches only the name field Tip: Use double quotes to search for a phrase. Browse by:. Reibey, Mary — by G. For the higher brain standard, the death of the cerebral hemispheres will be sufficient for the death of the person, as those are the parts of the brain which constitute the mind. One of the fundamental problems with the identity theory of mind and thus with both the total brain and the higher brain standards is that the mind is not necessarily identical with the brain.
The mind can be instantiated in more than one way. As an example of a particular mental state, pain seems multiply realizable because it is not produced only by the brain state in humans, but also by brain states in animals, and theoretically in computers. It is this latter possibility in particular that highlights a fundamental problem with identity views such as the total or higher brain conceptions of death. To see why this is the case, we must first start with a naturalistic conception of mind.
The aspects of the mind that we care about—personality, memory, consciousness, and so on—are thus traceable in some way to particular operations of the brain, operations which themselves can be performed in other ways. The idea would be that uploading our brains onto computers would be theoretically possible because our minds are in some way our brains and our brains operate through physical processes which can be duplicated electronically.
Thus, the electronic process related to encoded memories, links between memories, predispositions, and even consciousness and pain—all the things that make us persons—could be replicated through computers and without brains. That is, the mind is multiply realizable because it can conceivably be instantiated without a brain. The brain, then, is not what matters- what matters are certain functions the brain performs.
In the vast majority of cases, traditional cardiopulmonary standards for death will be sufficient. Such cases will occur when medical technology creates a gap between the body and death. In these cases, the total brain standard serves a more precise definition of death given our currently existing concepts of death and what we value in persons. Further precision would be obtained if we were to one day move to utilize the higher brain criterion instead. As we have seen, this is because we do not value all parts of the brain, and thus total brain death is not necessary for death of the person, only sufficient.
The higher brain standard will more closely mirror what we care about, as it tracks the portions of the brain which produce memories, consciousness, and personality, all of which constitute what we ultimately care about in persons. The personal identity standards come even closer to matching what we care about, and adherence to those standards would bring us perhaps as close as possible to adequate criteria for death. However, there are practical problems with the various criteria once we go beyond the total brain standard.
There are technological problems with verifying the higher brain criterion, let alone the personal identity criteria. The Commission recognized this in its report and seemed to base its decision to adopt the total brain standard tacitly on problems with the higher brain criterion. Total brain standards also face these measurement problems. Personal identity would be even more difficult to test for, and would in any case require value judgements regarding what matters in a person so that we would know what to look for in the first place. However, these and other practical problems in determining higher brain death do not prevent us from pragmatically defining death.
In simple cases, cardiopulmonary criteria suffice. In harder cases, total brain death would be sufficient, but higher brain death would be necessary. This is because, as has been noted, all cases of total brain death will be cases of higher brain death. But higher brain death more precisely narrows in on what parts of the brain produce what we value in persons—namely our memories, consciousness, beliefs, desires, and overall psychology. Thus, for our current purposes and given the current state of technology, the increasingly precise trifecta of cardiopulmonary, total brain, and higher brain death suffice for determining.
The idea of these transplants, as of yet not successfully implemented, is to transplant a patient's head on to the body of a donor who is brain dead. While the death criteria trifecta currently suffice, they will not permanently be sufficient for determining death. Given that our concepts and practices relating to death are tied with what we value in persons, as our values change so too will how we relate to death.
For instance, in a hypothetical future where experiences become more similar, memories will be similar as well. In such a future, it is conceivable that we may come to value the personality of persons more. Reacting to repetitive stimuli in new and creative ways may be increasingly valued and come to have a more important place in how we think of individuals.
We may discover that this facet of persons is actually a collection of many separate facets and may for that reason be difficult or impossible to replicate artificially. Such a change in our values could also affect our perception of the status of persons who have disorders like dementia, as we may find that personality still shines through even when memory fades. If or when such changes in our values and practices occur, our conceptions of personal identity may thus shift as well.
There are over , candidates awaiting organ donation. Using the current total-brain death standard, legally a patient must be totally brain dead in order to donate organs that they would not be able to live without. However, if we were to use a higher-brain criterion for death, more organs would be available for donation given the less restrictive standard of what constitutes death. While the enormous need for organs does not influence the truth of the matters as to what we value in persons or what constitutes death, our legal and social institutions must take the need for organs into account in developing beneficent social policy.
Changing medical technology poses new problems for our old standards of what constitutes death. Our values inevitably shape what we think of as the death of a person, and death is not merely a descriptive, scientific concept, but inescapably contains evaluative content. The changing frontiers of death force us to confront foundational questions of persons and values, hopefully in a way which will better prepare us to address future questions. It is vital that we examine the evaluative content in our concepts and practices relating to death, and reflect on what it is that we value or should value in persons.
The neurological criteria for death represent a remarkable advance in our ways of responding to changes in death and dying. However, as medical technology and life extension techniques develop, we must also develop increasingly precise notions of what aspects of our neurological lives are the most important. While the current total brain death standard currently suffices in the vast majority of cases, the standard does not fully line up with what we value in persons.
Should we retain the current brain death standard despite its mismatch with our values and despite negative consequences in determining death and in organ donation? Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome CRS : the complex syndrome resulting from radiation exposure of more than rads to the skin. The immediate effects can be reddening and swelling of the exposed area like a severe burn , blisters, ulcers on the skin, hair loss, and severe pain.
Very large doses can result in permanent hair loss, scarring, altered skin color, deterioration of the affected body part, and death of the affected tissue requiring surgery. Decay chain decay series : the series of decays that certain radioisotopes go through before reaching a stable form. For example, the decay chain that begins with uranium U ends in lead Pb after forming isotopes, such as uranium U , thorium Th , radium Ra , and radon Rn Decay constant: the fraction of a number of atoms of a radionuclide that disintegrates in a unit of time.
The decay constant is inversely proportional to the radioactive half-life.
Decay products or daughter products : the isotopes or elements formed and the particles and high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by the nuclei of radionuclides during radioactive decay. Also known as "decay chain products" or "progeny" the isotopes and elements.
A decay product may be either radioactive or stable. Decay, radioactive: disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable atom by the release of radiation. Decontamination radioactive : the reduction or removal of radioactive contamination from a structure, object, or person. Decorporation: removal of radioactive isotopes from the body using specific drugs called "decorporation agents.
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Depleted uranium: uranium containing less than 0. See also enriched uranium. Deposition density: the activity of a radionuclide per unit area of ground. Reported as becquerels per square meter or curies per square meter. Detector: A device that is sensitive to radiation and can produce a response signal suitable for measurement or analysis. A radiation detection instrument. Deterministic effect: an effect that can be related directly to the radiation dose received. The severity increases as the dose increases. A deterministic effect typically has a threshold below which the effect will not occur.
See also stochastic effect , non-stochastic effect. Deuterium : a non-radioactive isotope of the hydrogen atom that contains a neutron in its nucleus in addition to the one proton normally seen in hydrogen. A deuterium atom is twice as heavy as normal hydrogen. See also tritium. Dirty bomb: a device designed to spread radioactive material by conventional explosives when the bomb explodes. A dirty bomb is much simpler to make than a true nuclear weapon. See also radiological dispersal device. Several different terms describe radiation dose. Dose coefficient: the factor used to convert radionuclide intake to dose.
Usually expressed as dose per unit intake e. Dose equivalent: Animation The product of absorbed dose to a given organ or tissue multiplied by a quality factor also known as a weighting factor [WF] , and then sometimes multiplied by other necessary modifying factors, to account for the potential for a biological effect resulting from the absorbed dose.
It is expressed numerically in rem traditional units or sieverts SI units. Dose rate: the radiation dose delivered per unit of time. Dose reconstruction: scientific procedures that assist with 4 activities - managing victims of radiation emergencies, such as providing input to decisions on protection of emergency workers and members of the public or medical treatment of exposed individuals; providing exposed individuals or populations with information about the doses they received; investigating dose-response relationships in epidemiologic studies; determining whether individuals whose disease might have been induced by radiation qualify for compensation.
Dosimeter: a small portable instrument such as a film badge, thermoluminescent dosimeter [TLD], or pocket dosimeter for measuring and recording the total accumulated dose of ionizing radiation a person receives. Dosimetry: assessment by measurement or calculation of radiation dose. Effective dose: Animation a calculated quantity developed by the ICRP for purposes of radiation protection. The effective dose is assumed to be related to the risk of a radiation-induced cancer or a severe hereditary effect.
It takes into account: 1 the absorbed doses that will be delivered to the separate organs or tissues of the body during the lifetime of an individual due to intakes of radioactive materials; 2 the absorbed doses due to irradiation by external sources; 3 the relative effectiveness of different radiation types in inducing cancers or severe hereditary effects; 4 the susceptibility of individual organs to develop a radiation-related cancer or severe hereditary effect; 5 considerations of the relative importance of fatal and non-fatal effects; and, 6 the average years of life lost from a fatal health effect.
HPS Thus, the effective dose is a quantity calculated by multiplying the equivalent dose received by every significantly irradiated tissue in the body by a respective tissue weighting factor this factor reflects the risk of radiation-induced cancer to that tissue and summing together the individual tissue results to obtain the effective dose. Such a dose, in theory, carries with it the same risk of cancer as would an equal equivalent dose delivered uniformly to the whole body. See also biological half-life , decay constant , radioactive half-life.
Electromagnetic radiation: A traveling wave motion that results from changing electric and magnetic fields.
Types of electromagnetic radiation range from those of short wavelength, like x-rays and gamma rays, through the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions, to radar and radio waves of relatively long wavelengths. Electrons surround the nucleus of an atom because of the attraction between their negative charge and the positive charge of the nucleus. A stable atom will have as many electrons as it has protons.
The number of electrons that orbit an atom determine its chemical properties. See also neutron. Electron volt eV : a unit of energy equivalent to the amount of energy gained by an electron when it passes from a point of low potential to a point one volt higher in potential. Element: 1 all isotopes of an atom that contain the same number of protons. For example, the element uranium has 92 protons, and the different isotopes of this element may contain to neutrons.
Emergency Planning Zone EPZ : the area surrounding a nuclear power plant for which plans required by the NRC have been made in advance to ensure that prompt and effective actions are taken to protect the health and safety of the public in case of an incident. There is a plume exposure pathway EPZ which extends about 10 miles in radius around a plant. Its primary concern is the exposure of the public to, and the inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination.
The ingestion pathway EPZ extends about 50 miles in radius around a plant. Its primary concern is the ingestion of food and liquid that is contaminated by radioactivity. Enriched uranium: uranium in which the proportion of the isotope uranium has been increased by removing uranium mechanically. See also depleted uranium. Epidemiology: the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations; and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Epoetin: a recombinant version of human erythropoietin. Event planned event : Examples: a scheduled nonemergency activity e.
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Exposure radiation : a measure of ionization in air caused by x-rays or gamma rays only. The unit of exposure most often used is the roentgen. See also contamination. Exposure pathway: a route by which a radionuclide or other toxic material can enter the body. The main exposure routes are inhalation , ingestion , absorption through the skin, and entry through a cut or wound in the skin. Exposure rate: a measure of the ionization produced in air by x-rays or gamma rays per unit of time frequently expressed in roentgens per hour. External irradiation or external exposure : External irradiation occurs when all or part of the body is exposed to penetrating radiation from an external source.
During exposure, this radiation can be absorbed by the body or it can pass completely through. A similar thing occurs during an ordinary chest x-ray. Following external exposure, an individual is not radioactive and can be treated like any other patient. Gamma or photon radiation exposure from a terrorist nuclear event or radiation dispersal device would make the victim at risk for Acute Radiation Syndrome, depending on the dose received. Fallout, nuclear: minute particles of radioactive debris that descend slowly from the atmosphere after a nuclear explosion.
First receiver: Healthcare workers in a hospital or other facility where victims arrive for treatment. First receivers provide medical care at locations remote from the incident and not at the site of a hazardous materials release. Since victims may arrive for treatment still contaminated with hazardous materials, first receivers must also protect themselves by putting on appropriate PPE before delivering medical care.
PDF - 1. First responder: An individual responsible for protecting and preserving life, property, evidence, or the environment during the earliest stages of a mass casualty event or other emergency. First responders generally work at or near the incident site. Fissile material: any material in which neutrons can cause a fission reaction.
The three primary fissile materials are uranium, uranium, and plutonium Fission fissioning : the splitting of a nucleus into at least two other nuclei that releases a large amount of energy. Two or three neutrons are usually released during this transformation. See also fusion. Fluorescent in situ hybridization FISH : a cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes.
Fractionated exposure: exposure to radiation that occurs in several small acute exposures , rather than continuously as in a chronic exposure. Fusion: a reaction in which two lighter nuclei unite to form a heavier one, releasing energy in the process. Reactions of this type are responsible for the release of energy in stars or in thermonuclear devices. Gamma rays: Image Animation high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by certain radionuclides when their nuclei transition from a higher to a lower energy state. These rays have high energy and a short wave-length.
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All gamma rays emitted from a given isotope have the same energy, a characteristic that enables scientists to identify which gamma emitters are present in a sample. Gamma rays penetrate tissue farther than do beta or alpha particles but leave a lower concentration of ions in their path to potentially cause cell damage.
Gamma rays are very similar to x-rays. Geiger counter: a radiation detection and measuring instrument consisting of a gas-filled tube containing electrodes, between which an electrical voltage but no current flows. When ionizing radiation passes through the tube, a short, intense pulse of current passes from the negative electrode to the positive electrode and is measured or counted.
The number of pulses per second measures the intensity of the radiation field. Geiger counters are the most commonly used portable radiation detection instruments. Genetic effects: hereditary effects mutations that can be passed on through reproduction because of changes in sperm or ova. See also teratogenic effects , somatic effects. Gray Gy : The new international system SI unit of radiation dose, expressed as absorbed energy per unit mass of tissue.
The SI unit "Gray" has replaced the older "rad" designation. Gray can be used for any type of radiation e. Biological effects of radiation are measured in units of "Sievert" or the older designation "rem". Sievert is calculated as follows: Gray multiplied by the "radiation weighting factor" also known as the "quality factor" associated with a specific type of radiation. Half-life: the time any substance takes to decay by half of its original amount. See also biological half-life , decay constant , effective half-life , radioactive half-life. Health physics: a scientific field that focuses on protection of humans and the environment from radiation.
Health physics uses physics, biology, chemistry, statistics, and electronic instrumentation to help protect individuals from any damaging effects of radiation. OSHA U. High-level radioactive waste: the radioactive material resulting from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This can include liquid waste directly produced in reprocessing or any solid material derived from the liquid waste having a sufficient concentration of fission. Other radioactive materials can be designated as high-level waste if they require permanent isolation.
This determination is made by the U.
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Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the basis of criteria established in U. See also low-level waste , transuranic waste. Hot spot: any place where the level of radioactive contamination is considerably greater than the area around it. Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health IDLH : A level of exposure to airborne contaminants likely to cause 1 death; 2 immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects; or 3 prevent escape from such an environment. IDLH values are considered a maximum level above which only a highly reliable breathing apparatus providing maximum worker protection is permitted.
Incident unplanned event : Examples: An occurrence or event, natural or manmade that requires a response to protect life or property. Incidents can include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wild land and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response.
Incorporation: Incorporation refers to the uptake of radioactive materials by body cells, tissues, and target organs such as bone, liver, thyroid, or kidney. In general, radioactive materials are distributed throughout the body based upon their chemical properties. Incorporation cannot occur unless contamination has occurred. Incorporation is also called internal contamination. Ingestion: 1 the act of swallowing; 2 in the case of radionuclides or chemicals, swallowing radionuclides or chemicals by eating or drinking.
Inhalation: 1 the act of breathing in; 2 in the case of radionuclides or chemicals, breathing in radionuclides or chemicals. Internal exposure: exposure to radioactive material taken into the body. Inverse square law: the relationship that states that electromagnetic radiation intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from a point source. Iodine: a nonmetallic solid element. There are both radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes of iodine.
Radioactive isotopes of iodine are widely used in medical applications. Ion: an atom that has fewer or more electrons than it has protons , causing it to have an electrical charge and, therefore, be chemically reactive. Ionization: Animations the process of adding one or more electrons to, or removing one or more electrons from, atoms or molecules, thereby creating ions. High temperatures, electrical discharges, or nuclear radiation can cause ionization. Ionizing radiation: any radiation capable of displacing electrons from atoms , thereby producing ions.
High doses of ionizing radiation may produce severe skin or tissue damage. See also alpha particle , beta particles , gamma rays , neutron , x-ray. Iridium A gamma-ray emitting radioisotope used for gamma radiography. The half-life is days. Isotope: a nuclide of an element having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. Unit of measure is gray.
See also air kerma. Kiloton Kt : the energy of an explosion that is equivalent to an explosion of 1, tons of TNT. See also megaton. Latent period: the time between exposure to a toxic material and the appearance of a resultant health effect. Lead Pb : a heavy metal.