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Everybody needs Good Neighbours! As a result, the output of logs, lumber, veneer, and plywood has been in decline since then. Roundwood production in was estimated at Production of lumber in was estimated at , cu m Production for much of the last quarter of the 20th century was slowed by political instability, declining foreign investment, low international prices, high operation and production costs, labor problems, an inadequate mining law, and natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, tsunamis, typhoons, floods, and drought.
Nevertheless, the Philippines ranked second in the Asia-Pacific region, after Indonesia, in terms of mineral prospectivity and resources. The Philippines reportedly had the world's largest source of refractory chromite, from Masinloc, and substantial resources of copper, gold, nickel, and silver.
The production of chemicals and petroleum refining were leading industries in Copper output was estimated at 20, metric tons metal content in , up from 18, metric tons in Mined gold output was estimated at 37, kg in , with mined nickel output estimated at 27, metric tons in , up from 24, metric tons in The Philippines also produced sizable quantities of metallurgic chromite. Chromite ore production totaled an estimated 2, metric tons gross weight in , up from 20, metric tons in Silver was also produced for export.
The industrial mineral sector was dominated by the production of limestone, marble, and sand and gravel. In , the Philippines also produced bentonite, hydraulic cement, clays including red and white , feldspar, lime, perlite, phosphate rock, pyrite and pyrrhotite including cuprous , marine salt, silica sand, stone including dolomite, volcanic cinder, tuff, quartz , and sulfur. No guano phosphate was produced in and , or in Exploitation of the Philippines' potentially rich mineral resources has been stimulated somewhat by the Mining Act of , which was designed to promote the mining industry to the international community and to provide incentives to ensure efficiency and economic viability for mining endeavors.
The law also aimed to help the domestic mining industry regain its competitiveness by allowing companies contractors to obtain an exploration permit for a specific area for up to four years. A serious accident in involving spilled mine tailings from a copper mine on Marinduque led the government to freeze almost all applications for exploration licenses by foreign companies for one year.
Through , 59 exploration permits had been issued, and more than applications were pending. The mining industry employed , people — , of them engaged in small-scale mining and panning activities, chiefly in artisanal gold workings. The Philippines has modest reserves of oil, but more robust reserves of natural gas that could make the country a significant producer.
The country is also the second-largest producer of geothermal power in the world. As of 1 January , the Philippines had proven oil reserves of million barrels. In , oil production averaged an estimated 26, barrels per day, of which 25, barrels per day consisted of crude oil. Domestic demand for petroleum products in however, far outstripped production, In that year, demand averaged an estimated , barrels per day, necessitating imports averaging an estimated , barrels per day. Crude oil refining capacity, as of 1 January , was estimated at , barrels per day.
In , refining in the country was dominated by three companies: Petron; Pilipinas Shell; and Caltex Philippines , of which Petron is the largest. Petron's Limay, Bataan refinery can process , barrels per day of crude oil. Pilipinas Shell's refinery has a capacity of , barrels per day. Caltex Philippines closed its 6, barrel per day refining facility in late , a year ahead of schedule, to make way for a storage and distribution facility. The Philippines, as of 1 January , had proven natural gas reserves estimated at 3.
Of that amount, 2. Plans by the Philippine government call for using the field's gas to fuel three power plants with a combined electric generating capacity of 2, MW and displacing 26 million barrels of oil. In , domestic demand and output of natural gas were each estimated at The Philippines had recoverable coal reserves estimated at million short tons, as of In that same year, coal production was estimated at 1. Imports in that same year came to 3. However, coal's share of the Philippines' energy mix has been declining, due in large part to the development of new natural gas projects.
As of 1 January , the Philippines had an electric generating capacity estimated at Hydroelectric capacity accounted for around Total electrical output in was estimated at Geothermal energy, is produced on Luzon, Leyte, and Negros. Consumption of electricity in was estimated at In employment in industry decreased by 86, since , or by 1. In this same period there was a 7. These statistics reflect the setbacks the Philippines has encountered in its long-run strategy of converting to a more diversified economy with growth led by high value-added manufactured exports.
These problems were aggravated by the global economic recession that began in and the aftershocks of the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States. Over half of the value of Philippine exports in were accounted for by information technology IT products, which were particularly affected by the global recession. Exports of electronics first surpassed food products and textiles in value in the late s, as the government sought to shift from an economy based on agricultural produce and sweatshop factory output to an economy anchored by the assembly of computer chips and other electronic goods, many of them computer peripherals.
Over 50 chip assemblers and computer components makers have invested in Philippine operations. In a World Bank study, the Philippines was credited with one of the world's most technologically advanced export structures. A promising development was a major natural gas discovery in the Malampaya field, formally inaugurated in with the completion of a mile km sub-sea pipeline and the conversion of three power plants in Batangas to natural gas usage.
Oil production has not been promising: in only 2. The Malampaya Deepwater Gas-to-Power Project has shifted the government focus to an emphasis on the development of natural gas resources. By value, the leading industries are textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum products, electrical machinery, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, and fishing, with significant production in transport equipment, nonmetallic mineral products, fabricated metal products, beverages, rubber products, paper and paper products, leather products, publishing and printing, furniture and fixtures, and tobacco.
The industrial production growth rate in was 0. The industrialization strategy proposed by the government in stressed development of exports and the accelerated implementation of 11 major industrial projects — a copper smelter, a phosphate fertilizer plant, an aluminum smelter, a diesel-engine manufacturing plant, an expansion of the cement industry, a "cocochemical" complex based on coconuts , an integrated pulp and paper mill, a petrochemical complex, heavy engineering industries, an integrated steel mill, and the production of "alcogas.
Historically, manufacturing production has been geographically concentrated in the Metro Manila area and the adjoining regions of Southern Tagalog and Central Luzon. With the progress in electrification, this geographic concentration has begun to decrease. Most industrial output is concentrated in a relatively few large firms.
In , industry accounted for Leadership in formulating and implementing national science policy is exercised by the Department of Science and Technology. Special training in science is offered by the Philippine Science High School, whose graduates are eligible for further training through the department's scholarship program.
The French Institute of Scientific Research for Development and Cooperation has an institute in Manila conducting research in molecular biology. In , the Philippines had 68 universities and colleges offering courses on basic and applied sciences. In the same period, research and development expenditures amounted to 0. For the period — there were scientists and engineers and 22 technicians engaged in research and development per million people.
The archipelagic structure of Philippine marketing requires the establishment of regional centers and adds considerably to distribution costs, foreign domination of much of marketing, direct government participation, and the proliferation of small firms. Makati City is the business center of the country and hosts a number of distribution centers, trading firms, commercial banks, and high-end retail establishments. Cebu City is the trading center of the south. Small stores typify retail trade. Manila has major shopping centers and malls.
Generally, sales are for cash or on open account. Retailing is conducted on a high markup, low-turnover basis. A law provides for price-tagging on retail items. Direct marketing, particularly of foreign name-brand products, has gained in popularity. English is the general language of commercial correspondence. Most advertising is local; the chief media are newspapers, radio, television, posters, billboards, and sound trucks. Shops are usually open from 10 am to 8 pm, Monday through Saturday, but these hours can vary. Most department stores and supermarkets are open on Sunday.
Banking hours are weekdays from 9 am to 3 pm. Office hours, and hours for the Philippine government are generally from 8 am to 5 pm Monday through Friday, with a one-hour lunch break from 12 to 1 pm. Some offices are open from 8 am to 12 pm on Saturday. Staggered hours, with up to three shifts, are common in the metropolitan Manila area. The Philippines' traditional exports were primary commodities and raw materials. However, by , machinery and transport equipment made up the majority of exports.
Other exports included garments 6. In , machinery and electronics accounted for over three-fourths of all exports. In , the major exports were: electronic products Primary imports were: capital goods Japan and the United States continue to be the Philippines' primary trading partners.
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In percentage terms, for , the Philippines' leading markets were: Japan Leading suppliers included: Japan Since World War II , the Philippines experienced frequent trade deficits, aggravated by inflationary pressures. Foreign investment in the stock market and remittances from overseas workers helped to offset the deficit and avert a balance-of-payments crisis.
This was the first surplus in 12 years. Merchandise exports, in double digits through most of the s, slowed to a single-digit growth pace in , reflecting fewer export receipts from electronics and telecommunications parts and equipment. The and trade surpluses were the first since ; during the intervening period, expensive mineral fuel imports had thrown the balance into a deficit.
Traditionally, exports of primary products failed to balance imports, leading the government to restrict imports. Structural change accelerated in the s, as the contribution of industry including construction to GDP rose from The Aquino assassination in August had immediate economic consequences for the Marcos government, as did the broader Third World Debt Crisis. Hundreds of millions of dollars in private capital fled the Philippines, leaving the country with insufficient foreign exchange reserves to meet its payments obligations.
The government turned to the IMF and its creditor banks for assistance in rescheduling the nation's foreign debt, and an austerity program was set up during — Monopolies established under the Marcos administration in coconuts, sugar, meat, grains, and fertilizer were dismantled and a ban on copra exports was lifted.
All export taxes were abolished; and the government allowed free access to lower-cost or higher-quality imports as a means of improving the cost-competitiveness of domestic producers. Many difficulties remained, however. The prices of commodity exports, such as sugar, copper, and coconut products, were still weak, while demand for nontraditional manufactured products, such as clothing and electronic components, failed to rise. The structural reforms produced an initial recovery between and , but this was arrested by the series of natural disasters in — In , Aquino had also embarked on a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Programme, but its goals remain unfulfilled.
The country also had five debt reschedulings in the period to with the Paris Club — for official debt owed to aid donor countries — on which some payments are still owing. The Philippine banking structure consists of the government-owned Central Bank of the Philippines created in , which acts as the government's fiscal agent and administers the monetary and banking system; and some 45 commercial banks, of which 17 are foreign-majority-owned.
Other institutions include more than thrift banks, rural banks, 38 private development banks, 7 savings banks, and 10 investment houses, and two specialized government banks. The largest commercial bank, the Philippine National Bank PNB , is a government institution with over local offices and 12 overseas branches. It supplies about half the commercial credit, basically as agricultural loans.
There are also 13 offshore banking units in the country, and 26 foreign bank representative offices. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 8. Philippine stock exchanges are self-governing, although the Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission SEC , established in , has supervisory power over registrants.
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A computer link-up was effected a year later, although the two retained separate trading floors until November Only companies were listed as of But in , only 10 of the largest companies accounted for more than half of trading volume. In , a financial scandal in which the SEC failed to regulate the market properly drove the stock market down by a quarter and destroyed investor confidence.
The Government Service Insurance System GIS , a government organization set up in , provides life, permanent disability, accident, old age pension, burial insurance and salary and real estate loan benefits. Compulsory third-party motor liability insurance went into effect on 1 January In addition, workers' compensation and personal accident insurance for workers abroad are compulsory. The Insurance Commission of the Department of Finance oversees the insurance industry. Life and nonlife insurance companies provide coverage against theft, fire, marine loss, accident, embezzlement, third-party liability, and other risks.
The principal sources of revenue are income taxes, taxes on sales and business operations, and excise duties. Infrastructural improvements, defense expenditures, and debt service continue to lead among the categories of outlays. The government's commitment to fiscal balance resulted in a budget surplus for the first time in two decades in The surplus was achieved by higher taxes, privatization receipts, and expenditure cuts.
Public debt in amounted to The International Monetary Fund IMF reported that in , the most recent year for which it had data, budgetary central government revenues were p Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, The individual income tax consists of taxes on compensation income from employment , business income, and passive income interests, dividends, royalties, and prizes. Dividends are not subject to taxation if paid from one domestic corporation to another domestic corporation, or to resident foreign corporations.
Some cities, such as Manila, levy their own wholesale and retail sales taxes. Higher rates for activities. Excise taxes are imposed on selected commodities such as alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, jewelry and petroleum products. In addition, the government levies a variety of other taxes, including mining and petroleum taxes, residence taxes, a head tax on immigrants above a certain age and staying beyond a certain period, document stamp taxes, donor gift taxes, estate taxes, and capital gains taxes.
A document stamp tax is charged on stock certificates, proofs of indebtedness, proofs of ownership, etc. The Philippines, as a member of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC forum, is also committed to the establishment of free trade in the region and is expected to eliminate intra-regional barriers by Investments have been concentrated in manufactures for exports, utilities, mining, petroleum refining, and export-oriented agriculture, with accelerating interest in labor-intensive textiles, footwear, electronics, and other nontraditional export industries.
Investment is affected by import controls, exchange controls, and equity controls that favor Filipino participation in foreign ventures. Attempts to liberalize the economy of the Philippines are fighting three centuries of entrenched interests. Filipino political science research points out the influence and effects of Spanish colonialism that delivered the control of politics and economics into the hands of a small number of families. In the name of nationalism these families legislated against foreign competition in the s.
Serious restructuring began in the wake of the Third World debt crisis and the turn to the IMF for assistance. The foreign investment negative list is comprised of three categories where foreign investment is fully or partially restricted by the constitution or by specific laws. Restriction on setting up export processing zones has also been considerably relaxed.
The Export Development Act of signaled the government's conversion from an import substitution model of industrial development to an export-led growth model, more in line with its Asian tiger neighbors. The banking and insurance sectors were also significantly liberalized by legislation in Since the four existing foreign banks had not been allowed to open branches. Under a law, each was allowed to open up to six new branches, plus up to 10 new foreign full-service banks could be licensed with up to six branches each.
Rural banking, however, continues to remain closed to foreign investment. The next year, in , the Special Economic Zone Act, and separate laws for independent ecozones in Zoambanga and Cayagyu, established the framework for the collection of four government-managed ecozones and over 40 private ecozones, all with liberalized incentives to attract foreign investment. Amendments to the FIA in enhanced the investor-friendly framework, albeit leaving the country vulnerable to the rapid divestments of the Asian financial crisis the next year. With recovery, the government embarked on further reforms aimed at attracting foreign investors.
Also in , the Estrada administration opened the retail trade and grain milling businesses to foreign investment. There remain, however, major restrictions on foreign investments in the Philippines besides the natural hindrances that this most disaster-prone of countries is liable to, not the least of which is the complexity and detail of the investment regime. Under the FIA, the government is obliged to promulgate a Foreign Investment Negative List FINL consisting of a List A of foreign ownership limited by the constitution and specific laws, and a List B of foreign ownership limited for reasons of security, defense, risk to health and morals and protection of small and medium-scale enterprises.
On List A, by its terms, no foreign equity was to be allowed in the mass media except recording, nor in any of the licensed professions including law, medicine, accounting, engineering, environmental planning, interior design, teaching, and architecture. Small scale retail and mining, private security, utilization of marine resources, the operation of cockpits, and the manufacture of fireworks, are off-limits to foreigners, as are, on another level, the manufacture and stockpiling of nuclear, biological, chemical and radiological weapons.
In , President Arroyo, a trained economist, launched a high profile campaign to attract foreign investment. Former president Fidel Ramos and four other senior government officials were appointed as envoys to promote trade and investment. The Philippines' newly deregulated and privatized energy sector was the main draw, the center piece being the Malampaya natural gas project, which was officially inaugurated on 16 October following the completion of its mile km undersea pipeline and the conversion of three power plants in Batangas to natural gas usage.
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The Philippine government, despite its attempts to attract more foreign investment, has failed to invest in the infrastructure that is crucial to foreign and domestic investors — roads, communications, healthcare, and education. The government has been unable to address the issues of congestion and pollution in Manila.
Beginning in , the main tenets of the Marcos government's economic policies, as articulated through the National Economic Development Authority, included substantial development of infrastructure, particularly through the use of labor-intensive rather than capital-intensive i. The policies of the Aquino administration have stressed labor-intensive, small and medium-scale agricultural projects and extensive land reform. In addition, wealth believed to have been amassed by President Marcos was actively being pursued all over the world.
Long-range planning has followed a series of economic plans, most of them covering five-year periods. The development program for — 70 aimed to increase the growth rate of per capita income from the 0. The — 87 plan called for an annual expansion of 6. Under the Aquino administration the goals of the — 92 plan were self-sufficiency in food production, decentralization of power and decision making, job creation, and rural development.
Structural changes to provide a better investment climate were carried out. The Foreign Investment Act of liberalized the environment for foreign investment. Quantitative restrictions were removed from all but a few products. The foreign exchange market was fully deregulated in A new six-year medium-term development plan for — 98 was presented by the government in May The plan stressed people empowerment and international competitiveness within the framework of sustainable development.
To do this, the government planned to disperse industries to regions outside the metropolitan Manila area. By , the primary economic policy challenge confronting the government was to bring the public finances back into balance, allowing increased expenditure on areas such as infrastructure, education, and healthcare. The fiscal deficit had been pushed up due to poor tax administration, which saw revenue fall relative to GDP.
The ballooning public debt is a problem, at Interest payments account for a third of all public spending. Nevertheless, the stock market in mid was at a five-year peak, and the peso was at its highest against the dollar since mid Applications for investment incentives had more than doubled in and were also high in In the mids, the economies of Southeast Asia revolved around trade.
In , the region experienced a 6. But looking solely to exports as a means to promote growth is risky: what is needed is a revival of domestic consumption, which would help insulate the region from the vagaries of the world economy. The only country where exports did not make a significant contribution to growth by was the Philippines, where almost all growth was attributable to domestic demand.
Instead of being a mark of strength, however, this was a mark of economic weakness. Due to the billions of dollars of remittances that Filipinos working overseas send to their families back home, consumer spending in the Philippines is robust. However, the economy does not grow fast enough to provide jobs for those Filipinos who must find work overseas. The Social insurance system covers employees up to age 60, including domestic workers and the self-employed.
Membership for employers is compulsory. Benefits include compensation for confinement due to injury or illness, pensions for temporary incapacity, indemnities to families in case of death, old age pensions, and benefits to widows and orphans. Charges to cover the system are paid jointly by employers and employees and according to 29 wage classes. The government funds any deficit. Retirement is at age 60 for most workers. A medical care plan for employees provides hospital, surgical, medicinal, and medical-expense benefits to members and their dependents, as well as paid maternity leave.
A handful of women enjoy high prestige and visibility, but most women occupy traditional social roles and occupations. Unemployment rates are higher for women, and women continue to earn less than men. Sexual harassment in the workplace is widespread, and goes largely unreported because women are afraid of losing their jobs. Spousal abuse and violence remain serious concerns.
The absence of divorce laws and lack of economic opportunity keep women in destructive relationships. The government has enacted various measures to safeguard the rights of children. Child prostitution, while illegal, is widespread and has contributed to the growing sex-tourism industry. Some human rights violations remain, including arbitrary arrest and detention, torture, and disappearances. In , there were an estimated physicians, 56 dentists, nurses, and midwives per , people. There were 1, hospitals, of which were operated by the government and 1, in the private sector.
Government-financed child health malnutrition and early education programs are already well established in the Philippines. These programs suffer from chronic underfunding in terms of inadequate equipment, numbers of field-level staff, and other operating expenses. Government hospitals had 46, beds and private hospitals had 35, In addition, there were 2, rural health units.
Total health care expenditure was estimated at 3. Pulmonary infections tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis are prevalent. Malnutrition remains a health problem despite government assistance in the form of Nutripaks consisting of indigenous foods such as mung beans and powdered shrimp that are made available for infants, children, and pregnant women.
Protein malnutrition, anemia, and vitamin A and iodine deficiencies are commonly found in children. The goiter rate was 6. Heart disease is the third most common cause of death in the Philippines. During the s, a nationwide primary health care program was implemented. As a result, community involvement in health services increased, the prevalence of communicable diseases decreased, and the nutritional state of the population improved.
Obesity and hypertension are more common in the cities. The infant mortality rate declined from As of , the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, Maternal mortality was per , live births. Average life expectancy was There were an estimated deaths from AIDS in Construction is largely undertaken by the private sector, with the support of government agencies. As with many programs begun during the Marcos administration, the projects became ridden with scandal. More creditable was the Pag-IBIG fund, which was set up to promote savings for housing and provide easy-term housing loans, with contributions from individuals, banks, industries, and the government.
By the end of , p98 million in loans had been provided to , members. The Aquino administration offered tax exemptions to domestic corporations and partnerships with at least employees that invest funds in housing. Over 5 million housing units were built in the period — At the census, there were 15,, households in the Philippines with an average household size of 5 members.
Most housing units are single-family detached homes. A majority of households get their water from wells, river, lakes, and other bodies of water. Tens of thousands of barrios are scattered throughout the Philippines, each consisting of a double row of small cottages strung out along a single road. Each cottage is generally built on stilts and has a thatched roof, veranda, and small yard. Education is free for primary school and compulsory for six years and is coeducational.
English is the main medium of instruction, although Pilipino or the local vernacular is used for instruction in the lower primary grades. Primary school lasts for four years, followed by two years of intermediate school. Students may then move on to four years of secondary school. The academic year runs from June to March. It is estimated that about The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about in ; the ratio for secondary school was about The University of the Philippines, in Quezon City, with branches in major islands, is the leading institution of higher learning.
The adult literacy rate for was estimated at about As of , public expenditure on education was estimated at 3. The National Library in Manila has an estimated 1. The Filipiniana and Asia Division contains over , Filipiniana books. There are over public libraries across the country, with about as city or municipal libraries.
The National Museum in Manila collects and exhibits materials and conducts research in anthropology, ethnography, archaeology, botany, geology, history, and maps. Three relatively new museums in Manila exhibit primarily art: Lopez Memorial Museum exhibits Filipino painters; Metropolitan Museum exhibits a variety of art forms; and the Philippines Presidential Museum exhibits fine and decorative arts. There are four nationwide telephone networks, including the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, run mainly by the private sector, with services concentrated in urban areas.
Overseas communications operate via satellites and undersea cables. In , there were an estimated 41 mainline telephones for every 1, people. The same year, there were approximately mobile phones in use for every 1, people. Radio and television are operated by both government agencies and private concerns.
Radio transmitting stations numbered over in , and there were 75 television stations in In , there were an estimated radios and television sets for every 1, people. About 37 of every 1, people were cable subscribes.
Also in , there were There were secure Internet servers in the country in In there were about 50 major daily newspapers, as compared with six during the Marcos era. Under martial law, censorship of the press, radio, and television was imposed by the Marcos government. Many reporters, editors, and publishers were arrested during this period. Censorship was revoked under the Aquino administration. However, there are reports of threats, assaults, and killings of journalists who report on illegal activities such as gambling, logging, prostitution, and the drug trade among powerful individuals or groups, especially outside Manila.
The Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry has branches in metropolitan Manila and other important cities, and there are associations of producers and industrial firms in many areas. There are many associations of persons active in such fields as agriculture, architecture, art, biology, chemistry, economics, library service, literature, engineering, medicine, nutrition, veterinary service, and the press.
The Philippine Academy is the oldest and best-known scholarly organization. The National Research Council of the Philippines promotes research and education in physical and social sciences and the humanities. A number of professional associations also promote public research and education in specific fields, particularly those involved in medical research and healthcare, such as the Philippine Medical Association, the Philippine National AIDS Council, and the Philippine Diabetes Association.
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Sports associations are popular throughout the country. There are several national organizations focusing on women's rights, including the Philippine Association of University Women and the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women. Kiwanis and Lion's Clubs have programs in the country. The increase in tourism that followed the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos was dampened by the national disasters of the early s. The tourism industry has since rebounded. Manila remains the chief tourist attraction. Other points of interest are the 2,year-old rice terraces north of Baguio; Vigan, the old Spanish capital; Cebu, the oldest city; numerous beaches and mountain wilderness areas; and homes formerly owned by the Marcoses.
Basketball is the national sport, followed in popularity by baseball and football soccer.
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Jai-alai is popular in Manila and Cebu. Cockfighting is legal and often televised. In , about 1. Filipinos have made their most important marks in the political arena. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos — 89 , who won distinction as a guerrilla fighter during the Japanese occupation, was the dominant political figure in the Philippines from his first election to the presidency in November to his ouster in February His wife, Imelda Romualdez Marcos b.
Leading critics of the Marcos government during the late s and early s were Benigno S. Maria Corazon Cojuangco Aquino b. Fidel Valdez Ramos b. Estrada led the country from — ; Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo b. Lorenzo Ruiz fl. Fernando M. Guerrero — was the greatest Philippine poet in Spanish. Contemporary writers who have won recognition include Claro M. Estella — is the best-known Filipino composer. Altbach, Philip G. Baltimore, Md. Dolan, Ronald E. Philippines: A Country Study. Washington, D.