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Graphical Abstract. Open in a separate window. Objectives The primary objectives of the program are to train qualified professionals to be competent in writing, editing, and publishing biomedical articles, and to be proficient in rendering a full range of assistance in any of these areas.

Design The programs should be designed to provide a foundation for manuscript writing in compliance with established research reporting standards. Benefits By completing the training programs, participants may boost their confidence in biomedical writing and editing. Duration The duration of the programs can vary widely, depending on the needs of the target audience. Participants and qualifications To substantially benefit from the training programs, participants should have an academic degree in the natural sciences, medicine, linguistics, translation studies, or science journalism, or have work experience at a biomedical or pharmaceutical company.

Format of programs At present, educational programs in the form of graduate degree courses are scarcely available and are mostly offered online. Administrative issues Contents of the documents and manuscripts used for the trainings should be kept confidential. Mentorship Good educational programs should be spearheaded by experienced academic mentors who generously share their knowledge, skills, and experience.

Table 1 Schedule I: Basic aspects of biomedical writing, editing, and communications. Topics Core activities Acquired skills 1. Basic grammar usage 7 - Identifying correct grammar use in scientific language - Correct use of grammar in scientific texts - Editing text by correcting grammar 2.

Sentence structures and patterns 9 - Mastering different sentence structures and patterns - Recognition of sentence structures and patterns - Rewriting incorrect sentences - Upgrading sentence constructions - Correcting use of language - Proper use of scientific language - Identifying useful style guides and other language resources 4. Proper use of statistics for biomedical writers and editors 10 - Familiarizing with basic statistical terminology and methods - Proper use of statistical tests and concepts - Identifying study designs and corresponding statistics for data analysis 5.

Tables, graphs, and biomedical images 11 - Identifying and editing different types of tables, graphs, and images - Correct use of tables, graphs, and images 6.

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Components of a scientific paper 12 - Appropriate use of style and words - Mastery of article components - Identifying and editing different components of a scientific paper - Familiarity with different types of articles 7. Conference communications 13 , 14 - Learning how to draft effective oral presentations - Upgrading oral and poster presentation skills - Preparing poster presentations - Accuracy in conference report writing - Writing informative and reflective conference reports 8.

Preparing an article for publication 15 , 16 , 17 - Familiarizing with different types of articles - Familiarity with different types of articles - Correct citing and referencing - Organization of manuscript and data - Improving visual presentation of data.

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Schedule II: Essential skills in biomedical writing, editing, and publishing This schedule covers lectures, presentations, or workshops and feedback to build skills in biomedical writing, editing, and publishing. Table 2 Schedule II: Essential skills in medical writing, editing, and publishing.

Appraisal of a scholarly article 18 - Editing, writing, formatting, reviewing, and confirming scientific text - Analysis of research significance - Correct use of format, style, grammar, words, and phrases - Assessment of research methodology and results - Accurate use of terminology - Attention to study details - Presenting research methods clearly - Appraisal of a scientific paper in terms of style, format, syntax, language, content, logic, and overall impact - Use of scientific nomenclature 2.

Composing an effective cover letter 19 - Checking text and tone - Synthesis of the article - Highlighting significant findings and novelty - Detail orientation - Acknowledging contributors' efforts - Presenting novelty - Disclosing any conflict of interest - Listing potential peer reviewers - Disclosing funding 3. Understanding and interpreting editorial decisions - Interpreting decisions regarding acceptance, revision, and rejection - Interpretation of editorial decisions and reviewer comments - Clarifying journal instructions regarding revision and resubmission - Response formulation and organization - Critical thinking of research implications - Analysis of study relevance 4.

Resubmission - Providing point-by-point responses to reviewer comments - Reassessment of manuscripts - Reviewing manuscripts - Appraisal of logical flow in the manuscripts - Re-editing and proof-checking of rebuttal letters - Novelty assessment - Cross-checking of text revisions - Correctness of revisions 5. Composing responses to reviewer comments 20 - Copying and pasting of all comments into the response rebuttal letter - Accurate interpretation of comments - Providing point-by-point responses to the comments - Composing clear responses - Explaining revisions made in the text and cover letter - Adhering to the journal instructions - Writing polite and evidence-based rebuttals - Acknowledging reviewers and editors collaborative efforts - Preparing ready-to-deliver files with responses and changes clearly differentiated 6.

Editing oral presentations 22 - Editing text to ensure interactiveness - Composing interactive script - Audio and video recording at various speeds - Use of appropriate language - Coaching presentations - Adherence to presentation time - Proficiency in audio and video recording 9. Conforming to journal instructions 16 , 23 - Identifying the type of submission - Meeting text and format requirements - Meeting the word count limits - Editing required and unnecessary parts - Structuring abstracts - Assessment of target journal level - Dividing the manuscript into sections - Detail orientation - Formatting references - Adhering to ethics and reporting standards Galley proofreading 25 - Handling PDF files of galley proofs - Handling and editing PDF files - Annotating PDF-formatted galley for errors in spelling, typescript, punctuation, grammar, and formatting - Meeting proofreading deadlines - Communicating with journal editors and publishers before publication Citing web resources 26 - Citing non-print materials, including grey literature - Citation of and familiarity with online materials - Referencing e-publications, post-publication peer reviews, and supplements Editing references 17 , 27 - Correcting citation format - Detail orientation - Checking reference accuracy - Accuracy in following journal instructions - Formatting references - Mastery of reference formatting - Confirming reference linking - Using digital object identifiers DOI Title and abstract editing 28 - Title and abstract formatting, editing, and styling - Structuring titles - Summarizing studies - Learning rules of title and abstract writing Identifying different types of studies in medical research 29 - Recognizing various types of studies - Acuity in identifying research study types - Meeting formatting and structural requirements of each study type - Familiarity with research study designs - Conforming to research reporting guidelines - Knowledge of research reporting standards Identifying manuscript sections 30 - Highlighting manuscript sections - Mastery of manuscript sections - Checking appropriateness of each manuscript section - Accurate organization of data - Correct presentation of text according to the manuscript sections Familiarizing with conflicts of interest disclosures 31 - Understanding financial and nonfinancial conflicts of interest - Familiarity and knowledge of appropriate disclosures - Writing conflicts of interest statements Choosing target journals 33 - Assessing manuscript level and matching it with the best target journals - Familiarity with journal rankings - Identifying journal rankings according to traditional and alternative impact indicators - Enhanced skills in journal appraisal and suitability assessment - Clarifying the journal's scope, aims, and editorial policies Familiarizing with global editorial associations and their educational resources 34 - Explaining the importance of editorial guidelines and reporting guidelines - Familiarity with good publishing practice - Ensuring good publishing practice.

Schedule III: Interactive lectures on relevant topics Schedule III involves interactive lectures, presentations, workshops, and feedback on topics in medical writing, editing, and publishing. Topics Subtopics 1. Essential components Schedules I, II, and III , mechanics, evaluation, and target outcome of educational programs in biomedical writing, editing, and publishing.

References 1. Systematic review of the effectiveness of training programs in writing for scholarly publication, journal editing, and manuscript peer review protocol Syst Rev. An adaptable model of electronic editorial services for medical universities. Eur Sci Ed.

John Hopkins University. Science writing at hopkins. The University of Chicago Graham School. Medical writing and editing. University of the Sciences. University of Innsbruck. Master of science in medical writing. The ACS style guide: effective communication of scientific information. Rabinowitz H, Vogel S, editors. The manual of scientific style. Elements of style and usage.

The manual of scientific style : a guide for authors, editors, and researchers. Grammar and composition. The misuse and abuse of statistics in biomedical research. Biochem Med Zagreb ; 25 :5— Durbin CG. Respir Care. Acta Inform Med. Miller JE. Preparing and presenting effective research posters.

Health Serv Res. Longo A, Tierney C. Presentation skills for the nurse educator. J Nurses Staff Dev. Writing a narrative biomedical review: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors. Rheumatol Int. Hong ST. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles. Barroga EF. In-Text: Leng et al. Bibliography: Hong P, Wong W.

GeneNotes: a novel information management software for biologists. BMC Bioinformatics [Internet]. In-Text: Hong and Wong Birds of Ohio. Auburn WA : Lone Pine, p. In-Text: McCormac and Kennedy New tools for virulence gene discovery. Cellular microbiology. In-Text: McDaniel and Valdivia Bibliography: Rollin, BE.

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The unheeded cry: animal consciousness, animal pain, and science [Internet]. In-Text: Rollin All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed see Editorial Policies. Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments. When a large group or center has conducted the work, the author list should include the individuals whose contributions meet the criteria defined above, as well as the group name. One author should be designated with an asterisk as the corresponding author, and his or her email address should be included on the manuscript cover page. This information will be published with the article, if accepted. If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all author names and affiliations should be listed.

Abstracts should not exceed words, and should not include sub-headings. Please do not include citations in your abstract and avoid the use of abbreviations, if possible. Published works, works accepted for publication, and citable datasets should appear in the reference list. Mentions of unpublished work should be cited parenthetically within the main text of the article as personal communications.

The reference list appearing at the end of the article should be in alphabetical order by author. EndNote users can download the Elementa Endnote template here. Detailed information on formatting references can be found in our Reference Style Guide. Please indicate author contributions as clearly as possible, according to the following criteria:. People who contributed to the work but do not fit our author criteria should be listed in the acknowledgments, along with their contributions. You must ensure that anyone named in the acknowledgments agrees to being so named.

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Please provide a list of the sources of funding, as well as the relevant grant numbers, where possible. List the authors associated with specific funding sources. You will also enter this information in a form during the submission process, but it must be repeated here. In order to provide readers of articles with information about interests and relationships that might influence, or might be perceived to influence, the interpretation of articles published in Elementa, all individuals involved with a submission authors, editors, external reviewers are required to declare all competing interests.

Corresponding authors must provide a statement of competing interests on behalf of all authors and, if no competing interests exist, state this specifically. Authors who are also editors at Elementa play no role during the review process of their specific paper, and this is ensured by the publisher. However, authors who are also editors should still declare this and corresponding authors should be aware of this on behalf of other authors who are also editors. Erring on the side of full disclosure is best. Although we do not limit the number or type of supplemental material items authors may include, we do require that they provide a relevant and useful expansion of the article, and that they be as well described as are figures and tables included within the body of the article.

Please note, Editors are free to request changes in how supplemental files are presented to ensure clarity for readers. All supplemental material should include the following:. Video S1.

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Selection of video footage showing typical examples of observed fish species attracted to baited remote underwater video systems in New Zealand waters. Representative footage from three locations Three Kings Islands, Great Barrier Island and White Island and seven depth strata are presented 50, , , , , and m. This should list the database s and the respective accession numbers and DOIs for all data from the manuscript that has been made publicly available.

Figure titles and legends captions for all figures should be included in the main article file, not as part of the figure files themselves. Each figure caption should be inserted immediately after the embedded figure in the article file, and should include the following information:.

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Figure 2. Ordination of fish assemblages with depth at each of three New Zealand locations. Tables should be cited in ascending numeric order upon first appearance. Each table should be inserted immediately after the first paragraph in which it is cited in the article file. All tables should have a concise title. Table footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations. Citations should be indicated using the same style as outlined above. Tables occupying more than one printed page should be avoided, if possible.

Larger tables can be published as supplementary material. Please consult Table Preparation for detailed guidelines on formatting tables. You may submit your manuscript files in Microsoft Word. Only RTF and. LaTeX submissions. The PDF file is both necessary and sufficient for the review process. After acceptance, however,. Microsoft Word Submissions with Equations.

Editable versions of equations are required for production. If using a version older than Word , please format equations using MathType. Do not insert your equations as Graphic Objects and do not use of Symbol font. Figures should be included in the manuscript file, to aid with the review process, but must always also be uploaded as separate files in the exact order that they appear in the manuscript, to our manuscript submission system. Detailed instructions for formatting figures can be found in our Figure Preparation section.

Information integral to a full understanding of the article but are in formats that a cannot be rendered in two dimensions or b are too large to be clearly represented in current viewing systems Web browsers, e-readers, PDF should be submitted as supplemental material. Examples of this category of supplemental material include very large tables, audios, videos, three-dimensional visualizations, interactive graphics, and so on.