John Patrick Dr. Emily Ryalls Mr. Christopher Skiles Ms. Erma Stauffer Dr. Jodie Steele Mr. Jeremy Teitelbaum Dr. Andrea Terry Ms. Nina Truch Ms. Sheree Twisselman Davis Ms. Amy Ward Mr. Michael Winn Dr. Charles Woffinden Dr. Grace Yeh. University of Pittsburgh, M. He left naval warfare to lesser men, who were comprehensively defeated by the British. You will recall from previous lectures that when Britain was defeated in the American Revolution it turned to India as a source of wealth. This corporation fielded three armies comprising , troops.
Also, 43 warships and over mostly armed merchant ships. Britain put down the mutiny, disbanded the Company and took over most of its assets. From henceforth it spread rapidly throughout Africa, Asia and the Pacific. We saw in a previous lecture series how another Imperial Army and Navy — that of Japan — between and destroyed the imperium of Britain in Asia, and seriously threatened it in India and Australia.
After , along with other European nations, Britain withdrew from all its colonies — often in haste, but not bloodily, like some European powers such as the French in Vietnam. Both these powers were developing their own models of imperium. That of the USSR began falteringly in the Revolution of and died in a comprehensive economic collapse in the s. The imperium of the United States arose out of the shambles of their Civil War.
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The author sees two extreme explanations of the American imperium , and a third position in the middle of these extremes. This is based upon a military power which is beyond challenge, and must be used to apply a Pax Americana which must be applied across the world, in the same way as Pax Romana and Pax Brittanica. The middle position is epitomised by the renowned historian Niall Ferguson.
The Americans are changing their brigades, the largest military movement since the Second World War, a mile trail of armor and men moving up Highway 8 towards me… And I do begin to understand. Now we live in the American Empire. Yes, this war was about oil. Yes, it was fuelled by folly and arrogance and lies. But it was also about the desire — the visceral need — to project power on a massive scale, based on neo-conservative fantasies, no doubt, but unstoppable, inexorable. There is another common thread we will see in comparing and contrasting the exercise of the Roman, British and American imperia : the rivers of blood and treasure that have been spilled in order to build, project and protect these imperia.
Turner Pictures Worldwide. At pm on the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, , the Confederate General Lee ordered 13, American farm boys, mostly whom he had moulded in 2 years, into, arguably, the greatest war fighting unit in the world: the Army of Northern Virginia , to march, at yards a minute, across one mile of open fields, to take a hillock topped by a stone wall held by American farm boys, mostly, of the Union Army. We need to go back to the beginnings of its rise to power: the American Civil War, which was the first cross-roads which faced this extraordinary nation.
Fisk, Robert. The Great War for Civilisation. The Conquest of the Middle East. Harper Perennial. Murphy, Cullen. The New Rome. The Fall of an Empire and the Fate of America. I believe that firmly. It defined us. The Revolution did what it did. Our involvement in European wars, beginning with the First World War, did what it did. But the Civil War defined us as what we are and it opened us to being what we became, good and bad things. It was the crossroads of our being, and it was a hell of a crossroads: the suffering, the enormous tragedy of the whole thing.
He had done a good part in saving himself, who was a little part of the army. He had considered the time, he said, to be one in which it was the duty of every little piece to rescue itself if possible. Later the officers would fit the little pieces together again, and make a battlefront. If none of the little pieces were wise enough to save themselves from the flurry of death at such a time, why, then where would be the army? The brittle blue line had withstood the blows and won. He grew bitter over it. In the following four years of warfare , men were killed and , wounded out of a total American population of 32 million.
A further , men, women and children died from disease, starvation etc. Also on the Confederate side 94, died and , were wounded out of the 1. On the Union side , died and , were wounded out of the 2. These losses of dead, maimed, sick, and otherwise traumatised men and women were to have a profound effect on the psyche of Americans for at least one hundred years:. With 1. In the Union States, with a population of 26 million, only 2.
One consequence of this was that in many parts of the Union, the Civil War remained a faraway event. The Confederate States were devastated by the Civil War, and largely remained that way until the s. There were also other important reasons for this.
Of the 1. The 4 million slaves were concentrated on large landholdings which grew a high-value crop — cotton — for European cotton mills, and was the largest exporter in the world. Rostow notes that at the outbreak of war the Confederacy had a reasonable industrial base and a good railway network. The biggest state in the Confederacy was Virginia the fifth largest in the United States. It had a population of 1. It had miles of railways and a strong industrial base around Richmond: particularly the Tredegar Iron Works, which manufactured locomotives, cannons, anchors and other metal products.
Though geographicaly close to Washington, Richmond was well protected by a system of rivers each of which provided a natural defence. The Confederate artillery was not to the technical standards of the Union artillery because of the non-standard cannons in use, and the poor quality of the ammunition coming out of the arsenals of the South. The Confederate war planners assumed a defensive war on Confederate soil. Fortifications, bridges and roads featured prominently in these plans, slaves being used to provide the construction labour.
Confederate Army Regulations specified 68 drugs in the field medicine chest, none of which were made in the South. These had to be smuggled from the North or imported by blockade runners.
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By natural substitutes were being used. Surgery was performed on wounds within 24 hours to avoid septicemia. Because chloroform was not often available, whisky or brandy was used. Chemicals to sterlise surgical instruments were also unavailable. If the patient survived one of four surgical fevers he was sent to one of 44 hospitals in Richmond to recover and eventually return to his unit or transfer to the Invalid Corps.
Officers initially purchased their generous rations with Confederate money. But the Confederate dollar collapse in , and the Union naval blockade, created a rapid price inflation. Officers were then fed the same rations as the men. By contrast, Union soldiers were well fed on ample supplies of salted and canned meat. Experiments were also made with processed dry potatoes and vegetables, and canned coffee.
The Civil War saw the first railway war in history, moving troops and supplies with ease from one place to another. Footwear was a major problem because of the inadequacy of shoemaking in the South. Many Confederate soldiers went barefooted. The growth in the number of absentees in reflects hospitalisations, transfers to light duties and particularly, desertions. As we saw above, the Union States had a population of 26 million: nearly four times the size of the Confederacy.
Throughout the s there had been a big increase in the price paid for American wheat because Russian wheat exports were denied to much of Europe- especially before and after the Crimean War. Wheat production rose sharply as a consequence. Between and the US received 3.
A substantial manufacturing sector was growing to support the economic growth in the Union states: rails, locomotives, rail wagons, and pig iron. By the Union states were beginning to develop into an industrial juggernaut. This was the first time the United States was able to demonstrate its capacity to very quickly mobilise its enormous latent economic power to a total war footing, which would steam-roll the forces opposed to them.
It was also the first time that the opposing forces grossly underestimated the economic and latent military strength of the United States. Such was the case with the Confederate States:. In the end, for all the bravura of its leaders, for all the courage of the men who fought to establish and defend it, the Confederacy had been little more than that — an assortment of states unified only by their belief in the abstract right to secede.
Shelby Foote is absolutely correct in his conclusion that in its Civil War, the United States reached a crossroads in many, many ways. In a military sense America in was an optimistic, non-militarist culture bent on maximising its rapidly growing economic wealth. This was in contrast to much of Europe which, along with Clausewitz:. In the Civil War the United States had 3 million men under arms — 10 per cent of the population — which Keegan considers too high for any society.
In the following lectures we shall see that it was with great reluctance that the United States entered the European based conflicts in World Wars I and II. Nevertheless the Civil War did provide future students of warfare with an encyclopedic knowledge of the beginnings of modern warfare, on a continental scale.
The Civil War. Alfred A Knopf Inc. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict , without being yourselves the aggressors…We are not enemies but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. Sun Tzu. Folio Society. This idea allowed the white man to enslave the Negro, to servitude on his farms: particularly the large cotton plantations. Abraham Lincoln wanted desperately to preserve the Union, and avoid civil war.
Davis was born in , the son of an upwardly mobile farmer who started life in a Kentucky log cabin and later prospered in cotton farming in Mississippi. He graduated 23 rd out of class of twenty three. He saw military service in the Black Hawk Uprising of , which was swiftly ended. After the sudden death of his first wife, Davis spent 10 years cotton farming in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and was known as a gentle slave-owner.
Davis entered the US Congress in During the Mexican War — he commanded the Mississippi Rifles, a militia unit. Davis achieved a record as a non-compromising up-holder of southern ambitions. The and legislation upheld a very hard law the Fugitive Slave Act designed to prevent northerners interfering with southern slave management practices. Northerners were furious. Ten years later the prosperous slave-owning states seceded, and on 10 February appointed the former Senator and present plantation owner, Jefferson Davis, as President of the Confederate States of America.
In August Davis appointed the 54 year old Robert E Lee as brigadier-general and special military advisor; assigned to raise an Army of Northern Virginia, and plan the defence of the Confederacy. Davis retained the right to choose his own generals, and favoured West Pointers. On all tactical matters and most strategic matters he deferred to Lee. What Lee wanted was usually pushed through the Confederate Congress by Davis.
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Davis was also quick to exploit new technology for military purposes eg: a signalling system similar to Morse Code using flags and torches to exploit the open spaces of the Western battlefields. After two years imprisonment he was paroled for life, living off charity and working on his memoirs, and still wedded to the Confederate cause, until his death in , aged 81 years. There has been a strong tradition of military families in the history of America. Robert entered West Point in and graduated second in his class in , with not a single demerit to his name, unlike Grant.
His spotless merit record may have had something to do the relative standing in American society of the two officer cadets.
As Adam and Eve
The couple had seven children. The eldest son was to become a Confederate major general. On 30 March Lee accepted a commission in the Union Army. On 14 th May he was appointed to the highest military rank in the Confederacy: brigadier general. In August he was promoted to full general. Then, on 31 May he was put in command of the Army of Northern Virginia, where he would remain for most of the war. He would mould this Army into a fighting force which could match any European unit of the day.
It was Lee and this Army which came very close to overthrowing the Union. At the outbreak of the Civil War Lee was 54 years old, with a lifetime of service in the US Army, much of it in the field. He was also the best — until the emergence of Grant. By this time Lee was ill with pericarditis which would eventually prove fatal , rheumatism and an undefined intestinal disorder.
Lee was a devout Episcopalian. As such he had a deep feeling for the welfare of his men. His religion also gave him a natural courtesy and a strong sense of hierarchical authority. This included those from the patrician classes, especially from Virginia, to supply officers.
This was a very British and European way of doing things. In this, Lee was aided and abetted by President Jefferson Davis. But in the end Lee is best remembered as an attacking general who defeated his Union counterparts with great regularity, and most comprehensively, until his defeat at Gettysburg.
His greatest victory was at Chancellorsville in May An over-confident Hooker considered he had enough troops to surround Lee at Fredericksburg, with his back to the Rappahannock River:. Lee saw through the Hooker plans, and re-wrote the warfighting manual. Leaving 10, troops in front of the Union Army at Fredericksburg, he sent 50, Confederates around the Union flanks to their rear.
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They met the Union Army in a heavily wooded area known as The Wilderness. Hooker was caught completely unawares. His Army of the Potomac lost 17, killed, wounded and missing. The Army of Northern Virginia lost 12, Lee demonstrated remarkable engineering skill in using his combined arms in the defence of the besieged Petersburg, during Defences of this complexity would not be seen until the Western front in World War I. Lee did not receive a pardon and remained a non-citizen. He died in No other Confederate force ever had such confidence in itself.
And Lee had just as much faith in the abilities of the men he commanded as they had in him, something that commanders of other forces often lacked. This bred in Abraham a loathing for a life on the land. There have been a number of biographies of Lincoln. In my opinion the most insightful is by the Australian author Thomas Keneally After the age of 11 years, Abraham was hired out by his father, at 25 cents a day, to other farmers as a labourer. His schooling was rudimentary, but he developed a big appetite for reading. Keneally concludes that this period of his life made him uncomfortable with women.
At the age of 25 years, after several business ventures, and as an elected militia captain assembled to fight in the Black Hand Indian Uprising, Lincoln went bankrupt in He lost all his possessions. A friend bought his possessions at a bankrupt auction, and returned them to Lincoln. In he entered the Illinois State Assembly, worked hard and studied law books. In March he received his license to practice law. He joined the law office of a US Congressman in Springfield, Illinois, where he earned a reasonable living. Socially, he remained inept, was lonely and suffered from depression.
In a 34 year old Lincoln married a 23 year old Mary Todd. She was the daughter of a well-to-do Kentucky plantation and slave owner. At about this time the issue of slavery was re-emerging on the political stages of the US. This intensified from , and particularly in when the US Supreme Court ruled that blacks could not be considered as citizens under the Constitution.
By now Lincoln was a skilled political orator, and he spoke against the Supreme Court ruling. In this he garnered great support. At the Republican Convention in May he was elected as their candidate for the Presidency. In the Democratic Party there was a schism, caused by Southern Democrats insistence on the maintenance of a slave code for the United States. Keneally, Thomas. In the inter-regnum period, while the departing President Buchanan still held power, on 4 February , the Confederacy came into being.
Lincoln responded:. On 12 April , at Fort Sumter, the Confederacy opened proceedings. Like the delusional US leadership years later, Lincoln and Mc Clellan saw this as a war against the Southern aristocracy. Once the Union Army entered the South, the ordinary people would rise up and depose the slave owners of the Confederacy.
No further expeditions were mounted. Unlike the dilatory Army of the Potomac, the Union Army in the West was fighting the Confederates in brutal contests, leading to heavy casualties on both sides. In these battles the name of one general in particular emerged — Ulysses Simpson Grant. Mc Clellan in the East continued to be timid, prompting a frustrated Lincoln to write to him in May, I consistently can. On Novemebr 7, , Lincoln finally relieved Mc Clellan of command. Some brother officers wanted the latter to march on Washington and declare himself dictator.
Shades of Julius Caesar! In December another Union general, Burnside, suffered terrible casualties at Fredericksburg. By now, according to biographer Keneally, Lincoln was suffering from depression and was aging markedly. In January Lincoln appointed Joe Hooker a. In May , after elegantly planning a pincer movement on the Army of Northern Virginia, Hooker found himself on the losing side at Chancellorsville — again with heavy losses. Lincoln by now was a keen student of 19 th Century warfare.
Hooker offered his resignation in June It was accepted, and General George Meade replaced him. Once again Lincoln was greatly perturbed:. Grant was brought to Washington from the Western battlefields and appointed General in Chief, with Meade still in command of the Army of the Potomac. Grant understood that the Confederate States could only be defeated in a war of annihilation.
And this is what he proceeded to do. In doing so he established the template of a doctrine which was developed in the Indian Wars and in World Wars I and II, and subsequent major wars. Grant was born in in a remote frontier settlement in Ohio. His father was a successful pioneer businessman. At an early age Grant excelled as a pistol shot and horseman.
His ambitious father determined that Grant receive a college education: best achieved at that time by going to the US Military Academy, West Point, at government expense. Grant was only 5 feet and 1 inch in height: the minimum acceptable standard. At this time the Corps of Cadets numbered only , but many of them would achieve fame in the Civil War, especially on the Confederate side.
West Point did teach horse riding, at which Grant excelled. He was also a good student in mathematics and science. He had excelled as both as a military manager and a fighting soldier. His groomsmen were destined to become Confederate generals and surrender to Grant at Appomatox Courthouse. Grant was appointed as quartermaster, which he detested because of his poor grasp of paperwork. Between and he spent a miserable time in the US Army in California, maintaining law and order amongst the goldminers, and sustaining himself with alcohol and tobacco.
They included Robert E Lee after 30 years service and still without a regiment , and William Tecumseh Sherman, running an obscure military academy in the backblocks of Louisiana. These were three-year volunteer farm boys, who had to be turned into soldiers:.
Lincoln would finally accept , such recruits for the Union Army. Grant and his officers studied warfighting and drilled hard:. On 17 May Grant was made a brigadier general.
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By October of that year he was in command of 13, men, around Paducah, Kentucky, on the Western battlefields. At Belmont on the Missouri River, in a major battle, Grant managed to get his command surrounded. He organised a fighting retreat and successfully got all his troops ferried onto the other side of the Missouri River. He used flotillas of barges and gunboats. Another victory at Port Hudson on the Mississippi River again, cut the Confederacy in two, setting it up strategically for a war of attrition.
This was followed by another victory at Chattanooga. At about this time Lincoln ran out of commanding generals in the eastern theatre of the War. Warfighting in the USA was not viewed in the strategic way it had evolved in Europe, with Napoleon and those who followed him. Instead they were viewed as police actions and expeditionary fights aimed at resolving specific issues. General Winfield Scott, the victor of the Mexican War And a war fought on a continental scale had demonstrated a strategic sense against the French-trained Mexican Army. But it was Grant who reorganised the US Army to meet the strategic imperatives which needed to be addressed in order to defeat the Confederates:.
From the Spring of Grant imposed on the Civil War a strategic warfighting doctrine. The South lost , men killed and wounded. More than half of these were lost after Grant took command. When Lee surrendered, some of his divisions were down to men, and one brigade was down to 8 men Ward, Geoffrey et al.
By any yardstick this was an annihilation of the enemy. Sun- Tzu. The Art of War. Abraham Lincoln. Part of his Inauguration Speech. Quoted in Geoffrey C Ward, et al. Quoted in Philip Katcher. Petersburg was a railway junction city, and the capture of this strategic place was essential to the defeat of the Confederacy. It was defended by only men commanded by General Beauregard, supported by artillery. Formed in a skirmish line, and moving at one mile an hour, Union troops occupied the first two trench lines at sunset, when the Confederate gunners abandoned their artillery.
Petersburg lay at the feet of the Union army. However the Union attack did not go in until the evening of 16 June. By this time Lee had heavily reinforced the trenches, and a siege had begun. This siege was to continue until 1 April Thousands more men would be killed or wounded in a highly developed trench warfare, which would become the precursor for World War I. It would see the development of trench mining.
It was used in the case of the infamous incident when four tons of gunpowder blew a crater 30 feet deep and feet long in the Confederate trenches. An African-American regiment was ordered to attack through the crater. They were massacred as they tried to climb the steep sides of the crater. They lost men in this attack.
With trenches running for 53 miles around the city, Lee had only 35, mostly old men and boys to hold back , Union troops. He had started in May, 62, men in two columns, followed by a supply train 25 miles long. Atlanta, Georgia had burned down. Also a swathe of destruction had been burned through the State of Georgia. His columns then turned north towards Columbia, South Carolina:. Sherman rolled over the Confederates killing 2, On 1 April the Confederates under Lee broke out of the Petersburg siege to link up with the remains of the Confederate army under General Johnston in front of Sherman, in North Carolina.
Jefferson Davis in besieged Richmond loaded his government onto a train and moved miles to the south.
Richmond was then burned on the orders of Davis. Grant pursued Lee, sending him messages, urging the surrender of what was left of his army. The military back of the Confederate Army was broken. He came from a poor family in the Confederate State of Tennessee. Grant threatened to resign. Johnson also believed in the supremacy of whites over blacks. The Republicans wanted full civil rights for the freed slaves, and Grant joined this cause. However for the first time in history Congress overrode the veto on a major piece of legislation. The Civil Rights Act made it an offence to violate the civil rights of anyone of any race.
However no attempt was made to enforce the law until the s. Congress also passed three Reconstruction Acts. Johnson vetoed them all, and Congress overrode them all. Again the Acts were not enforced. The Army was left to apply the Reconstruction Acts as best they could. There were some 3 to 4 million ex-slaves who were still living in the former Confederate states, causing great fear among the white populations here.
Reflecting his Southern heritage Johnson also had this fear. Many veterans of the Confederate Army joined the Klan. As a military leader he was considered the equal of Grant, by some. However at the Battle of Fort Pillow he had supervised the massacre of , mostly black, Union troops. In Louisiana alone the Klan was held responsible for killing to Republicans: leaders, candidates and supporters Oxford Companion. There was also violence in other southern cities throughout All of this caused the Northern victors to start losing patience. In June the 14 th Amendment to the Constitution was enacted.
Inter alia, this required the equal treatment of all, before the law. Johnson again opposed the legislation. By May there was a great deal of anger and frustration against President Johnson, aimed at removing him from office. A Senate vote on his impeachment was lost by only one vote. But this action ensured that he would continue only as a lame-duck President. A 15 th Amendment mandated impartial national suffrage. The Reconstruction process was protected by the US Army, and opened up employment opportunities in federally funded activities.
There were still major obstacles: the cost of rebuilding devastated infrastructure and social services such as education; ingrained racism everywhere; hatred for a Republican government which had defeated the South; and a high level of polling fraud. The Compromise of , aimed at keeping the Confederate States in the Union, was enacted with the promise mostly unfulfilled of big subsidies to restore the South, in exchange for the pursuit of the civil rights of 3 to 4 million ex slaves in their midst. Jim Crow was now in the ascendancy and Reconstruction of the South was therefore ended.
But production did continue in the South, thanks to blockade running ships. After the War many ex-slaves stayed on the plantations as paid labour. Ownership of some plantations had also changed. Whilst cotton export markets revived to some extent, an increasing amount of cotton was bought up by new mills set up in the northern states.
Overseas capital also began to flood into the northern states. This capital sought long term, sustainable, commercial opportunities, which included the building of railways, the establishment of towns and the opening of new farm land in the western regions. In there were 30, miles of railway. The railway in the Confederate states was destroyed in the War, but by a rapid building program had increased railway mileage in the United States to 53,, and to 93, miles by Between and the US absorbed 4. Many were farmers who bought land to grow grain in places cleared of Indian tribes.
Land harvested in was By this had grown to Mining and manufacturing also grew rapidly. The iron and steel industry in particular underpinned the rapidly growing needs for steel rails, billets, wire especially barbed wire , nails etc. Heavy engineering also came to the fore, in railway rollingstock construction, ship-building, iron bridges etc.
On 1 January the US Government brought the nation back to the world gold standard, after rapid post War economic growth. The gold and silver hunters caught drifting into Indian lands provided the initial sparks which triggered the continuous wars with the Plains Indians of the American West, which would continue into the 20 th Century and which would lead to the destruction of the Indian Nations. No global and reliable statistics are available for this destruction, but the following references provide some insights into the inexorable arithmetic of the attrition process:.
As we shall see in the next two lectures, this is what happened throughout the American West from to the beginning of the 20 th Century, to make way for European settlement. Quoted in Angie Debo, Rum and trinkets and a grave. Lecture 6 looks at the conquest of the American West, and the treatment of the great Indian Nations of the Western Plains. There is, however, one big difference.
Since the coming of the white man to the Americas in , the native tribes played an important part in the development of continental America — that is, until the military conquest of the Western Plains Indians from This was a series of wars which would qualify as genocide under the modern UN definition. All that was sought from the Plains Indians was their land, and the treasures that lay beneath it. Today, their survivors are mostly materially better off on Reservation lands, but to a significant extent remain separate from the rest of the country.
Nevertheless, in times of crisis such as wartime, the Indian Nations have taken their place on equal terms, alongside their fellow Americans. Appendix 1 shows the groupings by language of the main tribes, as well as their locations.
Whilst language and location were common to the tribes shown in Appendix 1, there were often major differences: big distances; varied culture and long — standing tribal feuds. But in all the variety of language, location etc. When they were separated from their land they often died. The US authorities failed to grasp, or chose to ignore, this fundamental point. And it was to be the main cause of death amongst displaced tribes — at levels which presently fit the UN criteria of genocide. By all settlements had spread inland to the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. At about the same time French settlement existed along the St.
Both the English and the French recruited the local Indian tribes to their respective causes, by trade and armaments. There was some farming, and also the sale of rum and whisky. Aubrie Adams Dr. David Askay Dr. Jnan Blau Dr. Bethany A. Conway-Silva Dr. Anuraj Dhillon Dr.
Duffy Mr. Patrick Frisco Dr. Nancie J. Hudson Dr. Lorraine Jackson Ms. Ruth Kalin Ms. Leah Katona Ms. Lisa Kawamura Dr.